Neural Control of Renal Function Ulla Kopp

ISBN: 9781615042326

Published: May 1st 2011

ebook

96 pages


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Neural Control of Renal Function  by  Ulla Kopp

Neural Control of Renal Function by Ulla Kopp
May 1st 2011 | ebook | PDF, EPUB, FB2, DjVu, AUDIO, mp3, ZIP | 96 pages | ISBN: 9781615042326 | 7.14 Mb

The kidney is innervated with efferent sympathetic nerve fibers reaching the renal vasculature, the tubules, the juxtaglomerular granular cells, and the renal pelvic wall. The renal sensory nerves are mainly found in the renal pelvic wall. IncreasesMoreThe kidney is innervated with efferent sympathetic nerve fibers reaching the renal vasculature, the tubules, the juxtaglomerular granular cells, and the renal pelvic wall. The renal sensory nerves are mainly found in the renal pelvic wall. Increases in efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity reduce renal blood flow and urinary sodium excretion by activation of ?1-adrenoceptors and increase renin secretion rate by activation of ?1-adrenoceptors.

In response to normal physiological stimulation, changes in efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity contribute importantly to homeostatic regulation of sodium and water balance. The renal mechanosensory nerves are activated by stretch of the renal pelvic tissue produced by increases in renal pelvic pressure of a magnitude that may occur during increased urine flow rate. Activation of the sensory nerves elicits an inhibitory renorenal reflex response consisting of decreases in efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity leading to natriuresis. Increasing efferent sympathetic nerve activity increases afferent renal nerve activity which, in turn, decreases efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity by activation of the renorenal reflexes.

Thus, activation of the afferent renal nerves buffers changes in efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity in the overall goal of maintaining sodium balance. In pathological conditions of sodium retention, impairment of the inhibitory renorenal reflexes contributes to an inappropriately increased efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity in the presence of sodium retention. In states of renal disease or injury, there is a shift from inhibitory to excitatory reflexes originating in the kidney. Studies in essential hypertensive patients have shown that renal denervation results in long-term reduction in arterial pressure, suggesting an important role for the efferent and afferent renal nerves in hypertension.Table of Contents: Part I: Efferent Renal Sympathetic Nerves / Introduction / Neuroanatomy / Neural Control of Renal Hemodynamics / Neural Control of Renal Tubular Function / Neural Control of Renin Secretion Rate / Part II: Afferent Renal Sensory Nerves / Introduction / Neuroanatomy / Renorenal Reflexes / Mechanisms Involved in the Activation of Afferent Renal Sensory Nerves / Part III: Pathophysiological States / Efferent Renal Sympathetic Nerves / Afferent Renal Sensory Nerves / Conclusions / References



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